New York: Raven Press; The Prostate. Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men. Breast Care Basel. Menopause occurs when the ovaries lose their sensitivity to FSH and LH and the female reproductive cycles slow to a stop. The nonsteroidal antiandrogens that have been used in transgender women include the first-generation medications flutamide Eulexinnilutamide Anandron, Nilandronand bicalutamide Casodex.
Puberty is the term used to describe the developmental changes a child undergoes to become sexually mature and physiologically ready for reproduction.
Similarly, in male macaques castration has been associated with a gradual reduction but not an elimination of male sexual behavior Michael and Wilson, ; Phoenix et al. Ojeda SR, Bilger M. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. Short-term fasting affects luteinizing hormone secretory dynamics but not reproductive function in normal-weight sedentary women.
The effects of behaviorally-induced stresses—that is, psychological and social stresses—on the activity of the reproductive axis have received less attention, and their impact on the reproductive axis appears to be more variable.
It would appear that multiple factors, including dominance rank, time of year, magnitude of stress, aggressiveness of the animal, and level of activity of the reproductive axis prior to stress exposure can all play roles in modulating the response of the reproductive axis to both acute and chronic stresses see Figure Frisch R, MacArthur J.
Optometry and Vision Science. The endometrium begins to regrow, replacing the blood vessels and glands that deteriorated during the end of the last cycle. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed. The posterior pituitary releases the hormone oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth.
In transgender women on HRT, as in cisgender women during puberty, breast ducts and Cooper's ligaments develop under the influence of estrogen. Sex and context: Hormones and primate sexual motivation. Estrogen receptor modulators. The concomitant use of a cytochrome P inducer or inhibitor with feminizing hormone therapy may necessitate medication dosage adjustments.
The levels of GH are seen to rise in puberty due to the increase in sex steroids testosterone which has been converted to oestradiol and their positive effect on the pulsatile release of GH from the anterior pituitary gland.