Polyploidy generated by whole-genome duplication theoretically causes no chromosome imbalance 59 and can even be advantageous, perhaps by increasing variation in gene expression due to rapid genetic and epigenetic changes This nucleation theory is akin to the core component of the inactive X in mammals see below.
Brain Res. Aust J Biol Sci.
Skuse DH. Deng, D. Another study confirmed enrichment for PolII as well as for specific histone modifications associated with active chromatin, including H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 on active X alleles
As they tell their stories we can better understand how to modify our social and legal structures to better and more meaningfully accommodate the biological realities of sex. Gender neutrality is the idea social institutions, policies and language should avoid assigning roles based on sex or gender.
Share Flipboard Email. How genes shape gender Researchers often make it very clear there are important biological differences between humans and common animals in laboratory studies, such as mice.
Plant Cell. For example, the X chromosome is larger in eutherian mammals than in marsupials, probably because of translocation of autosomal material to its short arm. Furthermore, what are the effects of disrupting dosage compensation mechanisms on disease? Live-cell chromosome dynamics and outcome of X chromosome pairing events during ES cell differentiation.