Functional Ecology. Zool J Linn Soc — Chromosomal evidence suggests that two morphologically similar lineages evolved, one now represented in the Palearctic Region as the S. Acta Psychologica Sinica. It is often seen that a fish will change its sex when there is a lack of dominant male within the social hierarchy.
In either case, females which change sex to males are larger and often prove to be a good example of dimorphism. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. However, selection for ornamentation within this species suggests that showy female traits can be selected through either female-female competition or male mate choice.
Journal of Human Evolution. In this wasp species, the female workers are the smallest, the male workers are slightly larger, and the female queens are significantly larger than her female worker and male counterparts.
Smaller male size may be an adaptation to increase maneuverability and agility, allowing males to compete better with females for food and other resources. Females are taller, on average, than males in early adolescence, but males, on average, surpass them in height in later adolescence and adulthood.
Some such plants go even further and change their appearance again once they have been fertilised, thereby discouraging further visits from pollinators. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. All Argiope species, including Argiope bruennichiuse this method.
Sex and the Brain. Hence they develop fewer infectious diseases and succumb for shorter periods. IIIL-5 was presumed, largely on biogeographic evidence, to have been present as a polymorphism in the ancestor of the S.